AWS Infrastructure- Overview


I know its been long since I posted something.  To compensate with this delay, I have come up with something which is really useful for students/IT professionals who want to gain an overview about the services offered by Amazon Web Services.

AWS Global Infrastructure:

Region is a geographical area. Each region consists of 2 (or more) availability zones.  An availability zone(AZ) is a data center. Edge location is endpoint for AWS which is used for caching content. Typically this contains cloudfront, amazon’s content delivery network(CDN)

AWS Compute:

  1. EC2: Elastic compute cloud is a web service used to launch virtual machines
  2. EC2 container service: This service is used to manage docker containers at scale
  3. Elastic beanstalk: An orchestration service which is used to deploy and scale web applications
  4. Lambda: helps you to run your script without the need to provision or manage servers
  5. Lightsail: A Virtual private service which provisions us with server and assigns a fixed IP address and it also provides shared hosting
  6. Batch: used for batch computing

AWS Storage:

  1. S3: A simple storage service used to store either images, files in the form of objects
  2. EFS: Elastic File system is used to create a file system, mount it on an Amazon EC2 instance and then read/write data to and from your file system
  3. Glacier: This service is mostly used for data archival
  4. Snowball: Used to transfer large amounts of data into data center physically
  5. Storage gateway: They are virtual machines which you install in data centers and useful for replicating information back to S3

AWS Databases:

  1. RDSRelational database service makes it easy to set up, operate and scale a relational database in the cloud.
  2. Dynamo DB: A fast and flexible Non relational Database
  3. Elastic cache: A web service that makes it easy to deploy, operate, and scale an in-memory data store or cache in the cloud. The service improves the performance of web applications by allowing you to retrieve information from fast, managed, in-memory data stores, instead of relying entirely on slower disk-based databases.
  4. Red Shift: A fully managed data warehouse that makes it simple to analyze all    your data using standard SQL and your BI tools.

AWS Migration:

  1. AWS Migration Hub: A tracking service and it helps you track the applications as you migrate to AWS and integrates with other services within the migration framework
  2. Application discovery service: contains automated set of tools. It helps enterprise customers plan migration projects by gathering information about their on-premises data centers
  3. Database migration service: used to migrate on premise database to AWS
  4. Server migration service: migrate virtual and physical service to AWS
  5. Snowball: used for migrating TB of data into AWS

AWS Networking and content delivery:

  1. VPC: Virtual private cloud lets us provision a logically isolated section of the AWS Cloud where you can launch AWS resources in a virtual network.
  2. Cloud front : A global content delivery network service that securely delivers data, videos, applications and APIs to your viewers with low latency and high transfer speeds.
  3. Route 53: Amazon’s DNS service.
  4. API Gateway: provides a way to create, manage, publish, maintain, monitor and secure APIs at any scale.
  5. Direct connect: makes it easy to establish a dedicated network connection from your premises to AWS.

AWS Developer tools:

  1. Code Star: provides an user interface enabling you to easily manage your software development activities in one place. Codestar makes it easy for whole team to work together securely hence enabling you to quickly deploy, develop and build applications on AWS
  2. Code Commit: source code storage and version control service for AWS public cloud customers. Helps with CI and application delivery.
  3. Code build: once the code is ready then code build compiles and runs the test cases against the code to build packages which are ready to deploy.
  4. Code deploy: deployment service used to deploy code to EC2 and lambda functions
  5. Code pipeline: is a CD and CI service for fast and reliable application and infrastructure updates. Based on release process models, it builds, tests and deploys code every time there is a code change
  6. X-Ray: used to debug and analyze serverless applications
  7. Cloud 9: An IDE environment and the place where code can be developed inside AWS console.

AWS Management Tools:

  1. Cloudwatch: A monitoring service for AWS cloud resources and the applications you run on AWS
  2. Cloud formation: Provides a common language for you to describe and provision all the infrastructure resources in your cloud environment
  3. Cloud trail: A logging service which logs every action performed in AWS console. It stores information for one week. Helpful to recover from hacks.
  4. Config: monitors configuration of entire AWS environment and has point-in-snapshots
  5. Opsworks: similar to Elastic Bean stalk (uses chef and puppet) for automating the environment
  6. Service catalog: allows organization to create and manage catalogs of IT services that are provided for use on AWS
  7. Systems manager: provides visibility and control of your infrastructure. It helps you to group resources like EC2 instances, S3 buckets, or RDS instances by application, view operational data for monitoring and troubleshooting and take action on your group of resources.
  8. Trusted advisor: online resource to help you reduce cost, increase performance and improve security by optimizing AWS environment
  9. Managed services: provides management of AWS infrastructure so you can focus on your applications.

AWS Media services:

  1. Elastic transcoder: Used for Media transcoding in the cloud. Converts media files from source format into versions that playback on devices like android, iphone.,,
  2. Mediaconvert: A file-based video transcoding service with broadcast-grade features. It allows you to easily create video-on-demand (VOD) content for broadcast and multiscreen delivery at scale. 
  3. Medialive: live video processing service
  4. Mediapackage: it protects and prepares your video for delivery over internet.
  5. Mediastore: An AWS storage service optimized for media
  6. Media tailor: Used by video providers insert individually targeted advertising into their video streams without sacrificing broadcast level quality of service

AWS Machine learning

  1. SageMaker: used by developers to use deeplearning
  2. Comprehend: A NLP service that uses machine learning to find insights and relationships in text
  3. Deeplens : lets you run deeplearning models locally on the camera and take action on what it sees
  4. Lex: Service for building conversational interfaces into any application using voice and text
  5. Polly: converts text input into voice output
  6. Rekognition: makes it easy to add image and video analysis to your applications.
  7. Amazon translate: Translates english into other languages
  8. Amazon transcribe: Auto speech recognition service that makes it easy for developers to add speech-to-text capability to their applications

AWS Analytics:

  1. Athena: An interactive query service that makes it easy to analyze data in S3 using standard SQL
  2. EMR: Elastic Map Reduce is a web service that uses Hadoop, an open-source framework, to quickly & cost-effectively process vast amounts of data
  3. Cloud Search: search service for AWS
  4. Elastic search service:search service for AWS
  5. Kinesis: makes it easy to collect, process and analyze real time, streaming data so you can get timely insights and react quickly to new information
  6. Kinesis video streams: makes it easy to securely stream video for connected devices to AWS for analytics, machine learning and other processing.
  7. QuickSight: A fast, cloud powered BI service that makes it easy to build visualizations, perform ad-hoc analysis and quickly get business insights from your data
  8. Pipeline: A web service that helps you reliably process and move data between different AWS Compute and storage devices
  9. Glue: A fully managed extract, transform and load service (ETL) that makes it easy for customers to prepare and load their data for analytics

AWS Security and identity and compliance:

  1. IAM: Enables you to manage access to AWS services and resources securely. It allows you to create and manage AWS users and groups and use permissions to allow and deny their access to AWS resources
  2. Cognito: allows you to add user sign-up and access control to your web and mobile apps quickly and easily
  3. Guard duty: Monitors for malicious activity on AWS account
  4. Inspector : An automated security assessment service that helps improve security and compliance of applications deployed on AWS
  5. Macie: scans S3 buckets and looks for personally identified information(PII) for alerting you
  6. Certificate Manager: used to manage SSL certificates
  7. CloudHSM: a cloud based hardware security module(HSM) that enables you to easily generate and use your own encryption keys on AWS cloud.
  8. Directory service: enables your directory aware workloads and AWS resources to use managed Active directory in the AWS cloud
  9. Web Application Firewall(WAF): helps protect your web applications from common web exploits that could affect application availability, compromise security or consume excessive resources
  10. Shield: Managed distributed denial of service(DDOS) protection service that safeguards applications running on AWS.
  11. Artifact: provides on-demand access to AWS security and compliance reports and select online agreements

AWS Mobile Services:

  1. Mobile Hub: A collection of AWS tools designed to help developers build, test, configure and release cloud based applications for mobile devices
  2. Pinpoint: helps you engage with the customers by sending email, SMS and mobile push messages.
  3. Appsync: This service automatically updates the data in web and mobile applications in real time, and updates data for offline users as soon as they reconnect.
  4. Device farm: An app testing service that lets you test and interact with your Android, IOS and web apps on many devices at once or reproduce issues on a device in real time
  5. Mobile analytics: Mobile analytics is now a part of AWS Pinpoint


Amazon Sumerian lets you create and run virtual reality (VR), augmented reality (AR), and 3D applications quickly and easily without requiring any specialized programming or 3D graphics expertise.

AWS Application Integration:

  1. Step Functions: A web service that enables you to coordinate the components of distributed applications and microservices using visual workflows.
  2. Amazon MQ: A managed message broker service for Apache ActiveMQ that makes it easy to set up and operate message brokers in cloud.
  3. SNS: Simple Notification Service is a flexible, fully managed pub/sub messaging and mobile notifications service for coordinating the delivery of messages to subscribing endpoints and clients.
  4. SQS: Simple Queue Service (SQS) is a fully managed message queuing service that enables you to decouple and scale microservices, distributed systems, and serverless applications.
  5. SWF: Simple workflow service makes it easy to build applications that use Amazon’s cloud to coordinate work across distributed components

AWS Customer Engagement:

  1. Connect: It is a self-service, cloud based contact center service that makes it easy for any business to deliver better customer service at lower cost.
  2. Simple Email Service: It is a cloud based email sending service designed to help digital marketers and application developers send marketing, notification and transactional emails.

AWS Business Productivity:

  1. Alexa for Business: helps by being voice assistant at work
  2. Chime: is a communications service that you can use for online meetings, video conferencing, calls, chat and to share content, both inside and outside your organisation.
  3. Work Docs: used to store and share files.
  4. Work Mail: It is a secure, managed business email and calendar service with support for existing desktop and mobile email client applications

AWS Desktop and App Streaming:

  1. Workspaces: It is a secure cloud desktop service which can be used to provision either windows or Linux desktops in just a few minutes and quickly scale to provide thousands of workers.
  2. AppStream 2.0: It is a fully managed, secure application streaming service that allows you to stream desktop applications from AWS to an HTML5 browser, without rewriting them.

AWS Internet of Things:

  1. ioT: It connects physical world to the Internet so that you can use data from devices to increase productivity and efficiency.
  2. ioT device management: It makes it easy to securely onboard, organize, monitor and remotely manage IOT devices at scale.
  3. Free RTOS: An operating system for microcontrollers that makes small, low power edge devices easy to program, deploy, secure, connect and manage
  4. Green grass: Software that lets you run local compute, messaging,data caching, sync and ML inference capabilities for connected devices in a secure way.

AWS Game Development:

  1. GameLift: It is used to deploy, scale, and manage your dedicated game servers in the cloud, delivering low-latency, fun and reliable gaming experiences to your players around the world

I will make sure to update this page as and when they are introduced..

Happy reading 🙂


Google IO 2017

Its been really long since I have posted something and finally I have got some interesting blog post topic today – Google I/O 2017 it is..

Let me brief you regarding the announcements made today at Google I/O:

  • Google Home can now recognize up to 6 guests in your home. It is also used for making hands-free calling and supports free service from Spotify and others.

Image result for google home can recognise 6 guests

  • An announcement has been made about Google Lens. This software is used to let the cameras understand what they see and then take the action accordingly.

  • Google’s new cloud TPUs have been introduced, which are used to accelerate a wide range of machine learning workloads, including inference and training.
  • The most awaited Auto draw feature has been introduced in IO 2017.

Image result for autodraw

  • Google Assistant has been introduced to Apple iPhone’s now. It is going to support more languages now like French, German, Brazilian/Portuguese, Japanese and more.

Image result for google assistant in iphone

  • Google also introduced Suggested Sharing in Google Photos which suggests the best photos to share. It have introduced “shared libraries” in google photos which automatically shares photos with another person.
  • Google have introduced Photo books which compiles the photos selected by the user and these books can get printed and delivered in US for now.

Example of a book created with Google Photos, of a

  • Android O have introduced Picture-in-Picture mode which make multitasking even easier. You can now watch Youtube videos while you are browsing something on internet 😛


  • Google Play Protect feature have been included which is used to scan the apps for malicious activities. It will also help you to find your device by “Find My Device” feature that will either let you to pinpoint, ring, lock down or wipe your device, including Android Wear smartwatches.

  • “Google for jobs” have been introduced which connects the employers with job-seekers. So, the traditional google search can now be used to search for relevant jobs and the company has partnered with LinkedIn and Glassdoor to conduct this activity efficiently.

For more information you can check the following sites:

Open Source Technology and its Applications

I have been creating posts more about the technological advancements these days. So, I thought to making this post a bit technical and a known topic.

Open Source Technology is preferred by many people as it changed the way software is perceived and developed in many areas. It is developed collaboratively by group of volunteers. Even though the end result is as expected,  the development phases are mostly unorganized. Open source is defined as the production and development of philosophy/software, by allowing the end users and developers to not only see the source code but to modify it.

A common misconception is that open source software is free, meaning without cost. But this is not always true.Open source requires that a program’s source code be freely available; the program itself may still be sold commercially.

Linux is one of the best examples for this technology.Unlike Linux, Windows is built on a closed source paradigm that does not allow the end user the ability to see or edit the code that makes up the operating system.


By getting involved in the development of such open source technology, one can good knowledge on that particular technology as they get to see the in and out of the project and fix their own bugs. It provides a transparent platform upon which anyone with skills to do so can add to the development. Also there is no monopoly found in such projects.

The issue with open source is once the copyrights are assigned to original software, it cannot be transferred to the person who does modification.


Computer software:

1) Programming language: PHP – Scripting language suited for the web

2) OS: GNU Project a sufficient body of free software‚¬

Linux operating system kernel based on UNIX

FreeBSD operating system derived from UNIX

OpenSolaris UNIX Operating System from Sun Microsystems

3)  Server: Apache –HTTP web server

Tomcat web server –web container

MediaWiki — wiki server software, the software that runs Wikipedia

OpenSIS –open source Student Information System


Open–source hardware is hardware whose initial specification, usually in a software format, are published and made available to the public, enabling anyone to copy, modify and redistribute the hardware and source code without paying royalties or fees.

Openmoko-­-a family of open source mobile phones, including the hardware specification and the operating system.openmoko-uboot-lrg

Sun Microsystems’s OpenSPARC T1 Multicore processor.


An open-source robot is a robot whose blueprints, schematics, and/or source code are released under an open source model.

Here is a robot which is being developed under open source:

Tiny Open Source Robot


Which involves applying the concepts of open source to instruction using a shared web space as a platform to improve upon learning, organizational, and management challenges? An example of an Open Source Courseware is the Java Education & Development Initiative.


Here is the list of open source projects and applications:

List of the best open source software applications

Internet Of DNA

Did we ever imagine that we would be able to communicate each other without the need of mobiles? Never! This came into existence due to the availability of social media and in the same way we can imagine( i actually mean “have” instead of imagine) the web which exchanges DNA of people all around the world.

Think a person is suffering from dreadful disease like cancer. The doctors must struggle alot to find the apt medicine for him which is not possible for atleast a few hours of time. To solve this type of cases where time matters alot, doctors have started thinking technically and they actually came up with the idea of “Internet of DNA”. Through this concept or ideology(hope it comes to implementation soon), doctors can directly ask their personal Laptop to find the person who is suffering from xxx disease and have the chromosome number yyy. In this case, the result will be in minutes or seconds even if the data is already stored in the network which is very much helpful for the patients.



So imagine that in the near future, you had the bad luck to develop cancer. A doctor might order DNA tests on your tumor, knowing that every cancer is propelled by specific mutations. If it were feasible to look up the experience of everyone else who shared your tumor’s particular mutations, as well as what drugs those people took and how long they lived, that doctor might have a good idea of how to treat you. The unfolding calamity in genomics is that a great deal of this life-saving information, though already collected, is inaccessible.

Privacy, of course, is an obstacle to sharing. People’s DNA data is protected because it can identify them, like a fingerprint—and their medical records are private too. Some countries don’t permit personal information to be exported for research.


Internet of DNA

Internet of DNA_Review


Ambience Intelligence- The Future

Yes..we have already been experiencing this “intelligence” all around us. So let us discuss this today 😛

It is a multi-disciplinary approach which aims to enhance the way environments and people interact with each other. The achievement of Ambience Intelligence depends on the technology deployed and software used for decision making.

Most favorite example which makes you understand about ambient intelligence is as follows: (many of us are aware,but we aren’t keen that this is an example of ambient intelligence)

“Asking your smartphone to provide you information about medicine that can help you feel better (by taking multiple symptoms into account) or whether to see a doctor, and in some cases, “reserve” a place in a hospital emergency room, depending on the severity.”

Some mobile based companies have started working for better AI integration. Here are few researchers which are going on at present .

  1. IBM created a machine called Watson which can filter terabyte data to answer complicated questions in few seconds. This version of software which runs on Watson is expected to be available for tablet computers in 3 or 4 years.
  2. Check out this picture at Philips center 🙂  to find where the technology is leading you to… (check out references for more pictures like this one)


3. Mobile devices do have the capability of analyzing the digital content.            Ex: Google glass and Google self-driving cars(that’s why Google is      everyone’s favorite 😛 )

4. “PlaceMe” App is one such application which sits in the background of your mobile phone, uses every sensor in your handset to track your activities, location and environment and keeps a record of everywhere you’ve been.

5. “Highlight”  is another app that scans people around you and checks their profiles. If the app finds interesting people, such as someone that you share common friends with, it will let you know everything it knows about them.


  1. Check out more pics of philips research center at:
  3. Ambient Intelligence Group:

Intelligent Tutoring System

Have you ever imagined a system replacing the tutor in your classroom? Okay let me ask you this way.. Did you ever think you would score more by learning at your own pace? How good is it to have a personalized tutor? Well.. I would definitely love to have one..!

Intelligent tutoring system is software designed to help you in learning a particular subject at your own pace. It behaves like any other human tutor and provides you the same guidance you would expect. Because these systems are able to interpret complex student responses and can learn as they operate, they are able to discern where and why a student’s understanding has gone astray and to offer hints to help the student understand the material at hand. Intelligent tutors provide many of the benefits of a human tutor to very large numbers of students.Due to this system, it has been already proved that students can improve and perform well in their tests by the recent research done in Carnegie Mellon University.

The system have been developed by analyzing the concepts involved in ill-defined domain. The domain whose theory is not complete and has conflicting solution is known as ill-defined domain. The concepts in this domain will be implicit and the problems are mostly complex. Due to this nature, such problems cannot be divided into sub problems and thus are not easily solvable with reductionist methods.


These systems conference was created at various places and in many years starting from 1988.  In all the conferences conducted till now, researchers were analyzing the shortcomings of ill-defined domain and have identified that the bridge between technology and education must be covered. The 13th conference which is being held in 2016 will take place in Zagreb,Croatia.




Intelligent systems_past_present_future

Overview of ITS


Most desired self-balancing electric scooter with smartphone control

Struggling to learn scooter? In this digital world? Not any more…

Here is our first Xiomi self balancing scooter which can be controlled with smartphone.As we know, Xiaomi has unveiled a new self-balancing electric scooter. This Ninebot mini is a product of Xiaomi’s latest collaboration with Ninebot and Segway. It can steered using legs, and can spin on the spot. It offers speeds up to 16 km/hr, and climbs 15-degree inclines easily.

It comes with smartphone controls for speedometer, traffic data, fault detection, and other firmware upgrades.  And coming to the price, it is expected to be available at $315.

For more details:

Facebook answers Apple and Microsoft!

Who doesn’t know Siri? Who can ever forget Cortana? And now, who can stop reading about “M”( i think it should be renamed better)! Xo!

If you want to actually know about “M” then open your Facebook messenger to experience the virtual assistant. And here are the examples for which the assistant helps you:

  • Find a birthday gift for your buddies
  • Suggest a book
  • Check for holiday spot

This is what every assistant does right? But Facebook, as usual have included a new taste to this old bread by stating that in addition to using artificial intelligence , M is powered by actual people.

So, in simple, we can say M is a hybrid. It’s a virtual assistant powered by artificial intelligence as well as a band of Facebook employees, dubbed M trainers, who will make sure that every request is answered.

How it works?

To try the new service, users will have to tap a small button which is present at the bottom of the Messenger app to send a note to M, the same way that they message anyone on Facebook. M’s software will decode the natural language, ask followup questions in the message thread, and send updates as the task is completed. Users won’t necessarily know whether a computer or a person has helped them; unlike Siri and Cortana, M has no gender.

So, if you request a gift for your friend, the service will make suggestions based only on your answers to questions it asks you and previous conversations you and M have had. For your surprise and for obvious reasons, its FREE 😀

So, Good Day people! start using Facebook’s M which was launched yesterday and i am sure you will find it exciting as this is the first feature which can be used by a person having any type of phone(unlike SIRI or CORTANA which cheated us)… 😛

Here are few links about the story of M :




Signing off till the next post! Xcited! Bubye! 😀

Its ALPHABET everywhere.. :)

Its been 4 days since Google announced its new CEO and Larry Page ( the former CEO) is now the CEO of ALPHABET. This is certainly the major step towards the greater and bigger success for which google is planning in future. A company which is ranked 3 by Forbes magazine and which has revenue at around $70 billion would definitely aim high for major change in the technical world by its massive influence.

As the name suggests Google have perfectly justified its new ALPHABET from A to Z companies as follows:

A- Its nothing but the company name itself .. A for ALPHABET 😛

B- Ever heard of Boston Dynamics? The company which Google acquired for last year for its advanced robots?? Well, if not, check it now in the following link..  Boston_dynamics

C- “Calico” is google’s life extension project in which google is spending millions of dollars for finding treatment against Cancer and Alzheimers

D- D is for our famous “Deep mind” which concentrates on AI. Google acquired it last year for getting aid from self-driving cars to automatic arrangement of photos  .

E- Well known, Google Earth!

F- Google Fiber!


H- Hangouts

I- Google Ideas

J- “Jump VR” is google partner in building virtual reality camera.

K- K is for Knowledge graph which is a database of semantic search information which gives users the answers about “what is what” instead of just giving links.

L- “LIFE Sciences” division of Alphabet is about making healthier products. For example: detecting diabetes by contact lens

M- Makani is used to generate wind from its blades. Its proven to efficient than turbine.

N- Nest is google’s connected home initiative. Today Nest makes a thermostat, smoke alarm, and security camera, but one day Google could connect all our appliances to the Internet.

O- Ok google! commands 😛

P- Project Loon is used for providing internet access to remote areas.

Q- QUIC protocol is used to speed up the webpages where there is slower connection.

R- Recaptcha is the project done by CMU students under which a single click can decide whether he/she is a robot or not.

S- SKYBOX imaging is the micro-satellite startup Google acquired last year for $500 million.Due to the smaller size of satellites , larger quantity of them can be launched into a particular area for getting more frequently updated images.

T- Titan Aerospace is the solar-powered drone startup Google acquired last year. The drones could help Google update the photographic view of Maps faster. 😀 Look at this huge oneee…. :O

U- Google URL builder is used for tracking traffic on websites and it is a part of Google Analytics.

V-Autonomous vehicles: wooow.. these are our favorite self-driving cars. 🙂

W-Project Wing is Google’s drone delivery project. Its prototype can already drop and reel back in small packages, and it could one day help deliver essential goods like medicine to remote areas. Check out.. its already being used in Mumbai by few Restaurants 🙂

X- Various moonshots are organised under Google[x]

Y- YOUTUBE (name itself says 😉 )

Z- ZygoteBody makes users virtually peel away layers of skin, muscle, blood vessels, and bones to learn about what’s inside us. Am scared now!

I guess its a pretty long post but i couldn’t help as there are 26 in total .. 😛 Here are few links which further impressed me and it might be useful to you too 😉 Signing off until next interesting news … 😀




Intelligent Aliens

Ough! That’s a long break which I gave to myself from reading stuff that would make me conversant! And at the same time i was enjoying the languidness in these holidays! I guess this post is something tangential to the ones which i posted earlier and i would soon be more involved in the technical world.. ! 🙂

Stephen Hawking! The name which most of us know as an astrophysicist, made an interesting statement about the “Alien life”(which am interested in) this week. The hunt for intelligent species outside Earth may be a staple of literature and film; but it is happening in real life, too. Nasa probes are on the lookout for planets outside our solar system, and astronomers are carefully listening for any messages being beamed through space in 2010. There were very few people who took this statement seriously but when Hawking announced the dire to identify the aliens around us, the world shook!

Here are the statements made by the astrophysicist:

1. “If aliens visit us, the outcome would be much as when Columbus landed in America, which didn’t turn out well for the Native Americans,”

2.”We only have to look at ourselves to see how intelligent life might develop into something we wouldn’t want to meet.”

britain dangerous aliens--287301942.grid-4x2

Hawking believes that, based on the raft number of planets that scientists know must exist, we are not the only life-form in the universe. There are billions and billions of stars in our galaxy alone, with, it is reasonable to expect, an even greater number of planets orbiting them. And it is not unreasonable to expect some of that alien life to be intelligent, and capable of interstellar communication.